Biomass is the name given to groups of cells produced with fermentation. This process grows living microbial cells. Some examples are algae, baker’s yeast, and lactobacillus, which is found in yogurt.
Primary metabolites are the natural by products of a living cells metabolism. Some examples of these are alcohol and lactic acid.
Secondary metabolites are made in a living cells stationary stage. Examples of these are penicillin and gramicidin. Both of these are used in modern medicines.
Intracellular components are harvested by bursting living cells and then harvesting the internal proteins and enzymes. Examples of these proteins are insulin and vaccines. Examples of enzymes are amylase and lipase.
Substrate transformation is the complete transformation of one compound into another. Examples of these are ethanol fuels, and sewage treatment.